Covid in numbers a year after Boris Johnson plunged UK into its first lockdown


Figures reveal the ongoing impact of coronavirus in Britain, one year after Boris Johnson first told the nation to “stay at home” in the wake of the pandemic.

During the past 12 months, Covid-19 – “this invisible killer”, as the Prime Minister described it in his address to the nation on March 23, 2020 – has been stamped onto the death certificates of more than 140,000 people in the UK, as either the underlying cause or a contributory factor.

Families across the UK have experienced the heartbreak of losing a loved one to Covid-19; while others have lost jobs, seen businesses close or suffered the crippling loneliness of being isolated from friends and close relations.

Meanwhile across the world, coronavirus has claimed the lives of more than 2.65m people.

A cartoon showing UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson
It is one year since Boris Johnson plunged the UK into lockdown for the first time


From the start of the pandemic up to March 12 2021, a total of 148,125 people had died either from Covid-19 or with the virus as a contributory cause.

The death toll includes 73,500 deaths in England and Wales which were directly caused by the coronavirus in 2020 alone. With Covid-19 likely to be classified as an infectious and parasitic disease, that will mean it has caused more deaths in one year than any other virus in England and Wales since 1918, when the Spanish Flu contributed to a death count of 89,900 people.

Newham in London saw the highest proportion of deaths to coronavirus. Of 2,280, 764 were either caused by or contributed to by Covid-19, 34 per cent.

The week ending January 31 2020 saw the first death from Covid-19 registered in England, in Medway, Kent.

But the worst period in the crisis came during the second wave of the pandemic, during the week ending January 22 2021, when there were 8,899 deaths of patients suffering from Covid-19 in England and Wales.

A graph showing deaths rising in England and Wales
A total of 148,125 people had died either from Covid-19 or with the virus as a contributory cause


Covid-19 was first discovered in the UK at the end of January.

During the first wave, a peak of 5,434 cases were reported in one day, on April 7, before the lockdown caused infections to fall.

But as people began to mix more freely over the summer months, the number of infections began to climb once more.

During the peak of the second wave, on December 29, a total of 81,583 cases were reported.

Since then, the latest lockdown has caused the number of infections to fall – but there were still 3,485 new infections reported on March 20.

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While winter is traditionally the most pressured time for the NHS, with colder weather coinciding with an increase in illness and death, the winter of 2020 and 2021 was far from normal.

Across all hospitals in England, more than 5,000 critical care beds a day were occupied during the last week in January 2021.
That compares with around 3,000 a day during the same week in 2020 and in 2019.

Business and employment

Covid-19 has had a far-reaching effect on everyone in Britain, even those fortunate enough to avoid being infected with the virus, or to see family and friends fall ill.

Coronavirus has seen shops and businesses forced to close for long periods of time – some permanently – while thousands have been placed on furlough or asked to work from home.

The number of people claiming unemployment benefits across the UK rocketed by 80 per cent between last March, when the first lockdown began, and November 2020, rising from 45,222 to 82,743.

First Minister Nicola Sturgeon (left), Presiding Officer Ken Macintosh (centre) and Scottish Conservative Ruth Davidson (right), along with other MSPs and Parliament staff
The UK this morning marked a year since the start of the first lockdown

These figures are a combination of claimants of Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) and Universal Credit (UC) who fall within the UC ‘searching for work’ conditionality.

Meanwhile, across the UK as a whole the redundancy rate has rocketed, as companies have increasingly been forced to lay off workers.

In March 2020, the redundancy rate was running at 3.9 redundancies per 1,000 employees.

By October that had peaked at 14.2 per 1,000 employees, which was even higher than at the height of the 2008 and 2009 financial crash, when it reached 12.2 per 1,000 employees.

With up to 8.9 million people on furlough, and many businesses unable to trade as normal, the average number of hours worked per week, per person dropped by more than six hours.

Health Secretary Matt Hancock holds a news conference at 10 Downing Street, amid the coronavirus disease
Health Secretary Matt Hancock addressing the public during the Covid crisis

The figure fell from an average of 32.3 hours worked per week, per person between April and June 2019, to 25.9 in the same three months of 2020 – the lowest since 2008.

The accommodation and food industry – which includes pubs, hotels and restaurants – was hardest hit, with a 54 per cent fall in average weekly hours worked.

Meanwhile, the high street was struggling even before the pandemic, due to increasing numbers of people choosing to shop online or visit out-of-town retail parks that offer free parking.

But Covid-19 has massively accelerated the destruction of many retail businesses.

In 2019, 43 companies failed, affecting 2,051 shops and 46,506 employees.

Last year, 54 companies collapsed, impacting more than twice as many shops (5,214) and more than double the amount of workers (109,407).

Behind the scenes at University Hospital Southampton during the second wave of the Covid-19 pandemic
The pandemic has had a devastating toll on communities across the UK

High street chains that have fallen into administration over the last year include Debenhams – the oldest retail chain in the UK – Arcadia, Go Outdoors,Victoria’s Secret, Oasis and Spicers.

Meanwhile, money pumped into coronavirus support schemes – such as paying the wages of furloughed workers – has pushed up public sector debt to levels not seen since the early 1960s.

At the end of January 2021, public sector net debt made up 97.9 per cent of the UK’s GDP (gross domestic product) – up from 84.4 per cent at the end of March 2020.

Again, this is even higher than the figure seen during the 2008/09 financial crash, with public sector debt rising from 34.2 per cent of GDP at the end of March 2008 to 49.7 per cent a year later.

One year on

Today, March 23 2021, marks a year of the fight against Covid-19.

It was on this day last year that a somber Mr Johnson told the nation to, “stay at home, protect our NHS and save lives”.

Marie Curie – an end of life charity – has planned a national day of reflection, which will include a minute’s silence at midday, followed by a bell toll.

This evening, at 8pm, people are encouraged to stand on their doorsteps with phones, candles and torches, to symbolise a “beacon of remembrance”. Many prominent buildings will also be lit up.

Marie Curie’s Chief Executive, Matthew Reed, said: “The last year has been one of the most traumatic and uniting in modern history.

“With so many of us losing someone close, our shared sense of loss is incomparable to anything felt by this generation.

“Many of us have been unable to say a real goodbye or comfort our family, friends, and colleagues in their grief.

“We need to acknowledge that and recognise we are not alone.

“That’s why it is important that we all come together to reflect on our collective loss, celebrate the lives of the special people no longer here, support those who’ve been bereaved and look towards a much brighter future.”

A Government spokesperson said: “Every death from this virus is a tragedy and our condolences go out to everyone who has lost a loved one.

“This global pandemic challenged health systems across the world and our priority has always been saving lives, with an approach informed by the latest advice of our expert scientists.

“We are making incredible progress through our vaccination rollout as we battle to return life to normal, with more than 24 million people receiving their first dose. At the same time our world-leading genomics capabilities are helping countries to identify new variants.

“The government has always been clear there will be opportunities to look back, analyse and reflect on all aspects of Covid-19 and this will include an independent inquiry at the appropriate time.”

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